NOAA Gridded Data

We’ve discussed CRU and GISS gridded data, but many of the recent news stories about the “warmest winter” come from NOAA gridded data (for example here and here) , which seems to be gaining a little market share of news attention for gridded data.

I’ve started taking a look at the data. Given the intransigence of Phil Jones and CRU in refusing to disclose their station selection and methodology and the fact that NOAA is presumably subject to the U.S. Data Quality Act, there may be some advantages to trying to figure out how NOAA gets its results.

I’ve done a first pass in trying to replicate an individual gridcell and have replicated some features and not others. Maybe others will have some ideas.

The NOAA gridded data is a land-based gridded system and is an outgrowth of the GHCN data. Only 32% of the NOAA gridcells have any values. The readme says

GHCN homogeneity adjusted data was the primary source for developing the gridded fields. In grid boxes without homogeneity adjusted data, GHCN raw data was used to provide additional coverage when possible. Each month of data consists of 2592 gridded data points produced on a 5 X 5 degree basis for the entire globe (72 longitude X 36 latitude grid boxes).

Not a very detailed recipe, but it indicates that you should be able to go from GHCN data to NOAA gridded data. The GHCN v2 Adjusted version is located at http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ghcn/v2/v2.mean_adj.Z and the “raw” version is located at http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ghcn/v2/v2.mean.Z . The most recent gridded version appears to be at ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ghcn/anom/anom-grid2-1880-current.dat.gz with some earlier versions at other locations at the website. I have not been able to figure out how to download this information in R directly. I manually downloaded all three of these files, unzipped them and organized the files into R formats. I’ve attached scripts and instructions for making these three data sets.

I’ve experimented a little with benchmarking the Barabinsk, Russia gridcell, where there is only one station, and replicated some key features in a first pass, but with some surprising issues. First, here is a figure comparing the Barabinsk anomaly series to the corresponding gridcell series. The series start and end at the same spots and have a very similar visual appearance. (Given that Barabinsk data extends to the present, as I’ve noted elsewhere, it’s unclear why GHCN hasn’t updated its Barabinsk data.)


Figure 1. Top – NOAA gridcell; bottom – GHCN anomaly (my calculation from monthly data)

While the appearance is very similar, there are some important differences between the gridcell version and the anomaly (As I calculated it). The red line is simply a smoothed version. There are two quite different replication problems – there’s something in the annual normalization that I’ve not replicated and this leads to a more pronounced annual cycle in the anomaly as I’ve emulated so far. The red line shows a smoothed version of the difference, which evens out the annual cycle. This shows a type of step difference between the GHCNv2 adjusted data and the gridcell, which seems inconsistent with the methodology description. It also shows a progressive increase of the gridded version relative to the GHCNv2 adjusted anomaly (as I’ve been able to emulated the calculation).


Figure 2. Difference between NOAA gridcell and emulated anomaly from GHCN Adjusted version

I was a little puzzled by this and so I tried the same calculation with the GHCN Raw version. Again I couldn’t quite match the annual cycle – probably something to do with the calculation of normals – but this eliminated many of the steps observed with the GHCN Adjusted version. So it looks like the NOAA gridded calculation has used the Barabinsk raw version here rather than the adjusted version (seemingly contrary to the readme). Right now I have no idea what causes the remaining differences with the gridded version.


Figure 3. Difference between NOAA gridcell and emulated anomaly from GHCN Raw version

To close the circuit, here is the difference between the GHCN raw and adjusted versions, showing differences of up to 1 degree C.


Figure 4. Difference between GHCN Adjusted and Raw versions.

A script is here.

37 Comments

  1. Steve Sadlov
    Posted Mar 21, 2007 at 3:44 PM | Permalink | Reply

    To wit, I hereby present the motto of a certain educational institution, through which have passed myself, Michael Mann, and numerous others: “Let there be light!”

    http://www.asq.org/learn-about-quality/gage-repeatability/overview/overview.html

  2. beng
    Posted Mar 21, 2007 at 4:29 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Funny how the “adjusted” difference graphs look like hockey sticks.

  3. Paul Linsay
    Posted Mar 21, 2007 at 4:44 PM | Permalink | Reply

    RE figures 2 & 4: Am I missing something? I’d expect the adjusted to be larger than the raw data. As drawn the adjusted would show a cooling.

  4. Steve McIntyre
    Posted Mar 21, 2007 at 9:20 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Here’s a comparison (annual anomaly) of raw and adjusted GHCN v2 for Tarko-Sale. Why does the adjustment lower values in the 1930s and early 40s – I thought that this was supposed to be adjusting for urban heat islands and such, but this adjustment is doing the opposite. This is getting very tiresome.

  5. Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 1:57 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Slightly off-topic, is it possible for any regular reader of this site to publish on this site a post containing a glossary of the main, frequently-used abbreviations for the benefit of us non-scientific readers. I know this is mainly a site where-in ‘expert speaks unto expert’ and I have no wish to slow you all down by making you spell things out but, please, give us non-experts a break! I would ask our host to compose a brief glossary but he has much better things to do, however, I’m sure he would allow some one else to post one on his behalf.

  6. Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 2:58 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Steve,
    See my new post, “The Great Olenek Mistake”
    http://www.warwickhughes.com/blog/
    which has relevance to USSR data quality.
    Three graphics show a huge mid 1960’s inhomogeneity.
    I also note my page of several years ago on North Siberia data.

  7. rhodeymark
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 4:05 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Hi – what David said, please. Steve, I am gladly hitting the tip jar – if you would be so kind as to ask someone in the know to compose that for your sidebar, it would be appreciated. I went over a week thinking that GCM was “Global Climate Model” because… well, because I thought I was clever enough to guess. (Sound of muted trumpet “wa wa”) :^)

  8. Gord Richens
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 6:21 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Re 5&7
    You have my sympathies; I’m rather backward on such matters too.
    Hence I keep another browser window open and google acronyms that give me trouble.
    The benefit being that it gives me cause to visit sites of other organizations, adding to my education while staying out of the way of McIntyre et al.

    (Kudos BTW)

  9. Willis Eschenbach
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 7:05 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Well, I started out to do what rhodeymark and David requested, make a list of acronyms, figuring it would be easy … I stopped at 134 entries, it’s 3:00 AM …

    All the best, use as you see fit,

    w.

    4AR__________Fourth Annual Report (IPCC)
    AAO__________Antarctic Oscillation
    ABD__________Age Band Decomposition (tree ring standardisation method)
    ACE__________Accumulated Cyclone Energy
    ACR__________Atlantic Cylclogensis Region (cyclones)
    AGCM_________Atmospheric General Circulation Model
    AGU__________American Geophysical Union
    AGU__________American Geophysical Union
    AGW__________Anthropogenic Global Warming
    AO___________Arctic Oscillation
    AOGCM________Atmospheric/Ocean General Circulation Model
    AR4__________Fourth Annual Report (IPCC)
    ATL__________Atlantic
    AVHRR________Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers
    BADC_________British Atmospheric Data Centre
    BEST_________Bivariate ENSO Timeseries
    Bin-And-Pin__Dividing data into bins, and then pinning the endpoints when averaging
    BTW__________By the way …
    CA___________ClimateAudit website
    CAR__________Caribbean SST Index
    CC___________Carbon Credit
    CC___________Climate Change
    CDIAC________Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
    CH4__________Methane
    CMIP_________Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
    CO2__________Carbon Dioxide
    CoP__________Climate of the Past
    CPSST________Cross Product Sea Surface Temperature
    CRU__________Climate Research Unit of the Hadley Centre
    CRUTEM_______Land Temperature Record from CRU
    CVM__________Composite plus Variance Method (for analyzing proxies)
    dO18_________Change in oxygen-18 isotope
    DW___________Durbin-Watson statistic
    EE___________Energy and Environment (journal)
    ENSO_________El Nino Southern Oscillation
    ENSO_________El Nino-Southern Oscillation
    EOF__________Empirical Orthogonal Factor
    EPA__________Environmental Protection Agency (US)
    EPAC_________Eastern Pacific
    FAR__________Fourth Annual Report (IPCC)
    FOI, FOIA____Freedom Of Information Act
    FWIW_________For What Its Worth
    GCM__________General Circulation Model
    GCR__________Galactic Cosmic Ray
    GHCN_________Global Historical Climate Network
    GHG__________Green House Gases
    GISS_________Goddard Institute for Space Studies
    GOM__________Gulf of Mexico
    GRL__________Geophysical Research Letters (journal)
    HadCRUT______Combined land sea temperature database from the CRU
    HadISST______Ice coverage and SST database from CRU
    HadSST_______Sea temperature database from the CRU
    Hockey Team__Mann, Bradley, Hughes, Esper, Briffa, Schmidt, Thompson, those who support the Hockeystick
    HS___________Hockeystick, see MBH98
    HTM__________Holocene Thermal Maximum
    ICOADS_______International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
    IIRC_________If I recall correctly …
    IMHO_________In my humble opinion …
    INVR_________Inverse Regression (reconstruction method)
    IPCC_________Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    ITCZ_________Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
    ITRDB________International Tree Ring Databank
    J Clim_______Journal of Climate (journal)
    Jones________Phil Jones of CRU
    Ka___________Kilo annum (1,000 years)
    LIA__________Little Ice Age (Maunder Minimum)
    M&M__________Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick
    Mannomatic___Michael Mann's mathematical method used in MBH98
    MBH98________The Mann/Bradley/Hughes 1998 Hockeystick study
    MCSST________Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature
    MEI__________Multivariate ENSO Index
    Mg/Ca________Magnesium/Calcium seashell proxy record
    MJO__________Madden-Julian Oscillation
    MOHSST6______Met Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature (UK)
    MSU__________Microwave Sounding Unit (satellite instrument for temperature measurement)
    MWP__________Medieval Warming Period
    MXD__________Maximum Latewood Density (tree rings)
    N2O__________Nitrogen Dioxide
    NAO__________North Atlantic Oscillation
    NAS__________National Academy of Science (US)
    NASA_________National Aeronautic and Space Agency
    NCDC_________National Climate Data Center
    NH___________Northern Hemisphere
    NIO__________North Indian Ocean
    NLSST________Non-Linear SST
    NMAT_________Nighttime Marine Air Temperature
    NOAA_________National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    NOAMER_______North America
    NOI__________Northern Oscillation Index
    NP___________North Pacific Pattern Index
    NSF__________National Science Foundation (US)
    NTA__________North Tropical Atlantic Index
    ONI__________Oceanic Nino Index
    PCA__________Principle Component Analysis, used by Mann to create the Hockeystick
    PCR__________Pacific Cyclogenesis Region (cyclones)
    PCs__________Principle Components
    PDI__________Power Dissipation Index (cyclones)
    PDO__________Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    PNAS_________Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (journal)
    PPT__________Powerpoint Presentation
    QBO__________Quasi-Biennial Oscillation
    R____________"R" computer language
    RC___________RealClimate website
    RCS__________Regional Curve Standardisation tree ring standardisation method
    RSS__________Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
    RW___________Ring Width (tree rings)
    SAR__________Second Annual Report (IPCC)
    SAT__________Surface Air Temperature
    SH___________Southern Hemisphere
    SI___________Supplemental Information
    SOI__________Southern Oscillation Index
    SOI__________Supplemental Online Information
    SPM__________Summary for Policymakers (IPCC)
    SQA__________Software Quality Assurance
    SST__________Sea Surface Temperature
    TAR__________Third Annual Report (IPCC)
    TLT__________Temperature Lower Troposphere
    TMT__________Temperature Middle Troposphere
    TNA__________Tropical North Atlantic Index
    TNI__________Trans-Nino Index
    TRW__________Tree Ring Width
    TSA__________Tropical South Atlantic Index
    TSI__________Total Solar Irradiance
    Tsurf________Surface Temperature
    UAH__________University of Alabama Huntsville
    UCAR_________University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
    UHI__________Urban Heat Island
    USHCN________United States Historical Climate Network
    V&V__________Validation and Verification (for computer code)
    WDCP_________World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
    WG1__________Working Group 1 (IPCC)
    WHWP_________Western Hemisphere Warm Pool
    WMO__________World Meteorological Organization
    WPAC_________Western Pacific
    YMMV_________Your mileage may vary ...

  10. rhodeymark
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 8:19 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Much, much thanks Mr. Eschenbach – your last entry gave a laugh. Indeed, based on a few recent threads about the propriety of “withholding evidence” when our lifestyles are on trial, I suggest adding IANAL. :)
    Cut & printed. Hopefully Steve can make it permanently accessible, as I certainly do try to get the word out about CA – and encourage others to. I’m sorry, science is wonderful, but I demand a higher standard than academic peer review for the imposition of hardship on anyone (me, thee, 3rd World).

  11. JerryB
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 8:35 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Thanks Willis.

    In SAR, TAR, 4AR, and AR4, the A is for the word assesment,
    rather than annual. They are produced at about 5 or 6 year
    intervals.

  12. Paul
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 8:49 AM | Permalink | Reply

    John / Steve,

    How about making Willis’ post a page? It would be perfect….and easy to find.

  13. Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 9:37 AM | Permalink | Reply

    We are indebted to you Mr Eschenbach!

    If a page isn’t the answer, then I think you can get an add-in for some blogging software which will create a pop-up when you hover your mouse over an abbreviation. The Adam Smith Institute blog uses it I think

  14. JerryB
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 11:27 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Steve,

    Regarding: (Given that Barabinsk data extends to the present,
    as I’ve noted elsewhere, it’s unclear why GHCN hasn’t
    updated its Barabinsk data.)

    From the 1997 Overview of the GHCN paper:

    8 – Updates

    Thirty-one different sources contributed temperature data to GHCN. Many
    of these were acquired through second-hand contacts and some were
    digitized by special projects that have now ended. Therefore, not all
    GHCN stations will be able to be updated on a regular basis. Of the 31
    sources, we are able to perform regular monthly updates with only three
    of them ( Figure 5 ). These are (1) the USHCN, 1221 high-quality,
    long-term, mostly rural stations in the United States; (2) a 371 station
    subset of the U.S. First Order station network (mostly airport stations
    in the U.S. and U.S. territories such as the Marshall and Caroline
    Islands in the western Pacific); and (3) 1,502 Monthly Climatic Data for
    the World (MCDW) stations (subset of those stations around the world that
    report CLIMAT monthly code over the Global Telecommunications System
    (GTS) and/or mail reports to NCDC). Other stations will be updated or
    added to GHCN when additional data become available, but this will be on
    a highly irregular basis.

  15. Steve McIntyre
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 12:06 PM | Permalink | Reply

    No Barabinsk update has been done after the 1991 data. “Highly irregular” indeed.

  16. David Smith
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 12:15 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Re #9 Great list, willis. I hope Steve M sets it up as a reference on the sidebar.

    Several other candidates:

    THC thermohaline circulation
    Sv Sverdrup flow rate (= 1 million cubic meters per second)
    NATL North Atlantic
    SIO Southern Indian Ocean
    IO Indian Ocean
    SPAC South Pacific
    ECMWF European Community Midrange Weather Forecast Model
    GFS Global Forecast System model
    WP Warm Pool
    mb millibar

  17. JerryB
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 12:50 PM | Permalink | Reply

    FWIW: years and numbers of stations/locations: the number immediately
    following each year is the number of stations/locations for which the
    indicated year was the most recent year for which GHCN V2 contains monthly
    mean temperature data.

    1904 1 1927 3 1947 5 1968 33 1988 76
    1906 3 1928 1 1948 6 1969 42 1989 371
    1907 5 1929 5 1949 1 1970 224 1990 1086
    1908 2 1930 10 1950 33 1971 36 1991 178
    1909 3 1931 5 1951 8 1972 24 1992 455
    1910 3 1932 1 1953 3 1973 22 1993 75
    1911 1 1933 4 1954 8 1974 34 1994 31
    1912 1 1934 3 1955 13 1975 137 1995 27
    1913 2 1935 4 1956 11 1976 29 1996 26
    1914 1 1936 5 1957 10 1977 28 1997 27
    1915 1 1937 2 1958 15 1978 50 1998 22
    1916 1 1938 6 1959 13 1979 32 1999 22
    1918 3 1939 5 1960 89 1980 335 2000 25
    1919 2 1940 3 1961 19 1981 191 2001 43
    1920 5 1941 3 1962 10 1982 32 2002 35
    1921 4 1942 3 1963 17 1983 87 2003 51
    1922 1 1943 5 1964 23 1984 71 2004 212
    1923 1 1944 7 1965 18 1985 49 2005 72
    1925 4 1945 7 1966 26 1986 51 2006 1356
    1926 6 1946 4 1967 46 1987 42 2007 934

  18. Willis Eschenbach
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 2:04 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Revised list, IANAL and other acronyms added, “Annual” changed to “Assessment” (it was late), duplicates removed, thanks to all who contributed … good morning.

    w.

    4AR__________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    AAO__________Antarctic Oscillation
    ABD__________Age Band Decomposition (tree ring standardisation method)
    ACE__________Accumulated Cyclone Energy
    ACR__________Atlantic Cylclogensis Region (cyclones)
    AGCM_________Atmospheric General Circulation Model
    AGU__________American Geophysical Union
    AGW__________Anthropogenic Global Warming
    AO___________Arctic Oscillation
    AOGCM________Atmospheric/Ocean General Circulation Model
    AR4__________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    ATL__________Atlantic
    AVHRR________Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers
    BADC_________British Atmospheric Data Centre
    BEST_________Bivariate ENSO Timeseries
    Bin-And-Pin__Dividing data into bins, and then pinning the endpoints when averaging
    BTW__________By the way …
    CA___________ClimateAudit website
    CAR__________Caribbean SST Index
    CC___________Carbon Credit
    CC___________Climate Change
    CDIAC________Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
    CH4__________Methane
    CMIP_________Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
    CO2__________Carbon Dioxide
    CoP__________Climate of the Past
    CPSST________Cross Product Sea Surface Temperature
    CRU__________Climate Research Unit of the Hadley Centre
    CRUTEM_______Land Temperature Record from CRU
    CVM__________Composite plus Variance Method (for analyzing proxies)
    dO18_________Change in oxygen-18 isotope
    DW___________Durbin-Watson statistic
    ECMWF________European Community Midrange Weather Forecast Model
    EE___________Energy and Environment (journal)
    ENSO_________El Nino Southern Oscillation
    EOF__________Empirical Orthogonal Factor
    EPA__________Environmental Protection Agency (US)
    EPAC_________Eastern Pacific
    FAR__________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    FOI, FOIA____Freedom Of Information Act
    FWIW_________For What Its Worth
    GCM__________General Circulation Model
    GCR__________Galactic Cosmic Ray
    GFS__________Global Forecast System model
    GHCN_________Global Historical Climate Network
    GHG__________Green House Gases
    GISS_________Goddard Institute for Space Studies
    GOM__________Gulf of Mexico
    GRL__________Geophysical Research Letters (journal)
    HadCRUT______Combined land sea temperature database from the CRU
    HadISST______Ice coverage and SST database from CRU
    HadSST_______Sea temperature database from the CRU
    Hockey Team__Mann, Bradley, Hughes, Esper, Briffa, Schmidt, Thompson, those who support the Hockeystick
    HS___________Hockeystick, see MBH98
    HTM__________Holocene Thermal Maximum
    IANAL________I am not a lawyer …
    IANAS________I am not a statistician …
    ICOADS_______International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
    IIRC_________If I recall correctly …
    IMHO_________In my humble opinion …
    INVR_________Inverse Regression (reconstruction method)
    IO___________Indian Ocean
    IPCC_________Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    ITCZ_________Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
    ITRDB________International Tree Ring Databank
    J Clim_______Journal of Climate (journal)
    Jones________Phil Jones of CRU
    Ka___________Kilo annum (1,000 years)
    LIA__________Little Ice Age (Maunder Minimum)
    M&M__________Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick
    Mannomatic___Michael Mann's mathematical method used in MBH98
    mb___________millibar
    MBH98________The Mann/Bradley/Hughes 1998 Hockeystick study
    MCSST________Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature
    MEI__________Multivariate ENSO Index
    Mg/Ca________Magnesium/Calcium seashell proxy record
    MJO__________Madden-Julian Oscillation
    MOHSST6______Met Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature (UK)
    MSU__________Microwave Sounding Unit (satellite instrument for temperature measurement)
    MWP__________Medieval Warming Period
    MXD__________Maximum Latewood Density (tree rings)
    N2O__________Nitrogen Dioxide
    NAO__________North Atlantic Oscillation
    NAS__________National Academy of Science (US)
    NASA_________National Aeronautic and Space Agency
    NATL_________North Atlantic
    NCDC_________National Climate Data Center
    NH___________Northern Hemisphere
    NIO__________North Indian Ocean
    NLSST________Non-Linear SST
    NMAT_________Nighttime Marine Air Temperature
    NOAA_________National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    NOAMER_______North America
    NOI__________Northern Oscillation Index
    NP___________North Pacific Pattern Index
    NSF__________National Science Foundation (US)
    NTA__________North Tropical Atlantic Index
    ONI__________Oceanic Nino Index
    PCA__________Principle Component Analysis, used by Mann to create the Hockeystick
    PCR__________Pacific Cyclogenesis Region (cyclones)
    PCs__________Principle Components
    PDI__________Power Dissipation Index (cyclones)
    PDO__________Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    PNAS_________Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (journal)
    PPT__________Powerpoint Presentation
    QBO__________Quasi-Biennial Oscillation
    R____________"R" computer language
    RC___________RealClimate website
    RCS__________Regional Curve Standardisation tree ring standardisation method
    RSS__________Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
    RW___________Ring Width (tree rings)
    SAR__________Second Assessment Report (IPCC)
    SAT__________Surface Air Temperature
    SH___________Southern Hemisphere
    SI___________Supplemental Information
    SIO__________Southern Indian Ocean
    SOI__________Southern Oscillation Index
    SOI__________Supplemental Online Information
    SPAC_________South Pacific
    SPM__________Summary for Policymakers (IPCC)
    SQA__________Software Quality Assurance
    SST__________Sea Surface Temperature
    Sv___________Sverdrup (flow rate = 1 million cubic meters per second)
    TAR__________Third Assessment Report (IPCC)
    THC__________Thermohaline Circulation
    TLT__________Temperature Lower Troposphere
    TMT__________Temperature Middle Troposphere
    TNA__________Tropical North Atlantic Index
    TNI__________Trans-Nino Index
    TRW__________Tree Ring Width
    TSA__________Tropical South Atlantic Index
    TSI__________Total Solar Irradiance
    Tsurf________Surface Temperature
    UAH__________University of Alabama Huntsville
    UCAR_________University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
    UHI__________Urban Heat Island
    USHCN________United States Historical Climate Network
    V&V__________Validation and Verification (for computer code)
    WDCP_________World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
    WG1__________Working Group 1 (IPCC)
    WHWP_________Western Hemisphere Warm Pool
    WMO__________World Meteorological Organization
    WP___________Warm Pool
    WPAC_________Western Pacific

  19. Pat Frank
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 2:04 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Great list, Willis. I second everyone’s praise. Truly a labor of love. Here’s a small chemistry addendum

    CH4________methane
    CFC________chloro_fluoro_carbon, e.g., ClCF3
    CO ________carbon monoxide (serious poison)
    HCFC_______hydro_chloro_fluoro_carbon, e.g., HCClF2
    NOx________nitric oxide (‘x’ means the number of oxygens varies: 1,2,2.5)
    N2O________nitrous oxide (not nitrogen dioxide)
    O2_________oxygen gas (Thermodynamics says we should all burst into flame)
    O3_________ozone
    SF6________sulfur hexafluoride (a very inert dense gas)
    SO2________sulfur dioxide (becomes SO3 in air)
    SO3________sulfur trioxide (becomes sulfuric acid in humid air)
    SD_________standard deviation (=r.m.s.)
    r.m.s._____root-mean-squared (sqrt[sum-of-n_(errors^2))/n])

  20. Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 3:02 PM | Permalink | Reply

    European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, no cummunity :-)

  21. Willis Eschenbach
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 3:29 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Thanks, Pat. I’m up to 163 acronyms and counting, I can see why people might find it confusing.

    w.

  22. Willis Eschenbach
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 3:35 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Thanks, Paulo, fixed.

    w.

  23. John Baltutis
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 3:58 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Why reinvent the wheel? AFAICT, most, if not all, acronyms can be found at http://www.acronymfinder.com/

    As far as GCM is concerned, it finds (in ranked order):

    General Court(s)-Martial
    General Circulation Model
    Global Climate Model

    Great Commission Ministries
    Good Conduct Medal
    Galois/Counter Mode (cryptography)
    Global Circulation Model
    Geriatric Care Managers
    Greenwich Capital Markets
    Greatest Common Multiple
    General Counsel Memorandum (IRS)
    Greatest Common Measure
    Government Contract Manager
    Government Created Money
    Geodesic Constant Method

  24. David Smith
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 4:09 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Re #20 Thanks for the correction. I always think of Europe as a big happy community, and that thought tricked my typing fingers…

  25. bernie
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 4:20 PM | Permalink | Reply

    http://www.acronymfinder.com/
    A useful site, John. Thanks. But I think a shorter list will still be useful for quick reference – your example demonstrates the potential potential inefficiencies of an exhaustive listing of all acronyms.

  26. Dave Dardinger
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 4:20 PM | Permalink | Reply

    re: #23

    Greatest Common Measure

    I’m beginning to feel like Obi Wan Kenobi. There’s a name I haven’t heard in a very long time. Actually since the spring of 1964 when I took Measure Theory in college. I wonder if the Milankovic theory could be called Orbital Wobble Kinetics (OWK)?

  27. John Baltutis
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 4:49 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Re: #25

    I’m only suggesting that Mr. Eschenbach expend his efforts doing what he does best and not do the listing. For those who want a selective list, such as yourself, I recommend that you or they take on the onerous task of compiling the selective list and free up Willis to do his wonderful things. Never know what might rub off on you’€”you could become the resident guru. Me? I have constructed such lists WRT to the military/industrial complex and computer fields over the past thirty years; thus, have no use for one and find the link most useful.

  28. Willis Eschenbach
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 5:24 PM | Permalink | Reply

    John B., thanks for the link to the excellent acronym site. While it is useful, I’m creating a more specialized database.

    The problem is twofold. One, as pointed out by bernie, is that there are often dozens of meanings for the same acronym. A beginner will not necessarily be able to choose the right one.

    A second problem is that this site commonly uses a number of specialized acronyms and expressions which are not on their list, such as TGGWS, DLW, M&M, HadCRUT, RC, Mg/Ca, SAR, EEP, MBH98, Hockey Team, JJA, NATL, Mannomatic, dO18, Sv, CVM, CRUTEM, Climax, WDCP, and the like. For example, there are no less than 198 definitions of RC on the acronym site, but none of them refers to the common usage here, which is the RealClimate web site.

    In any case, here’s the latest version. Corrections and additions gladly accepted.

    w.

    14C, 12C_______Isotopes of Carbon
    4AR____________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    AAO____________Antarctic Oscillation
    ABD____________Age Band Decomposition (tree ring standardisation method)
    AC1____________Lag-one autocorrelation
    ACE____________Accumulated Cyclone Energy
    ACR____________Atlantic Cylclogensis Region (cyclones)
    AFAICT_________As far as I can tell …
    AFAIK__________As far as I know …
    AGCM___________Atmospheric General Circulation Model
    AGG____________Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gas
    AGU____________American Geophysical Union
    AGW____________Anthropogenic Global Warming
    AIT____________An Inconvenient Truth (TV documentary)
    AMIP___________Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
    AO_____________Arctic Oscillation
    AOGCM__________Atmospheric/Ocean General Circulation Model
    AR4____________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    ARIMA__________Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average model or process
    ARMA___________Auto Regressive Moving Average model or process
    ATL____________Atlantic
    Atm____________Atmosphere, atmospheric
    AU_____________Astronomical Unit (average distance of the Earth from the Sun)
    AVHRR__________Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers
    BADC___________British Atmospheric Data Centre
    BAU____________"Business-as-Usual", IPCC scenario
    BC_____________Black Carbon (climate forcing)
    BE_____________Baroclinically Enhanced (cyclones)
    BEST___________Bivariate ENSO Timeseries
    Bin-And-Pin____Dividing data into bins, and then pinning the endpoints when averaging
    BTW____________By the way …
    CA_____________ClimateAudit website
    CAR____________Caribbean SST Index
    CC_____________Carbon Credit
    CC_____________Climate Change
    CCN____________Cloud Condensation Nuclei
    CDIAC__________Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center
    CFC____________chlorofluorocarbon, e.g., ClCF3
    CH4____________Methane
    CI, 95%CI______Confidence Interval, 95% Confidence Interval
    Climax_________Cosmic ray detector in Climax, Colorado
    CMAP___________Climate Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction study
    CME____________Coronal Mass Ejection (solar phenomenon)
    CMIP___________Coupled Model Intercomparison Project
    CO ____________Carbon Monoxide ( Poison)
    CO2____________Carbon Dioxide
    CoP____________Climate of the Past
    CP_____________Cloud top pressure
    CPC____________National Weather Service Climate Prediction Center (US)
    CPSST__________Cross Product Sea Surface Temperature
    CRU____________Climate Research Unit of the Hadley Centre
    CRUTEM_________Land Temperature Record from CRU
    CSIRO__________Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia)
    CSM____________NCAR GCM, includes CSM2 and CSM3
    CT_____________Cloud top temperature
    CVM____________Composite plus Variance Method (for analyzing proxies)
    delta, 'ˆ‚, 'ˆ†____Net change in a value
    DJF____________December, January, February (winter)
    DLW____________Downwelling Long Wave radiation
    DMS____________Dimethyl Sulfide, a precursor of various atmospheric sulfur compounds
    dO18, 'ˆ‚O18_____Change in oxygen-18 isotope level
    DOE____________Department of Energy (US)
    DW_____________Durbin-Watson statistic
    EBM____________Energy Balance Model
    ECMWF__________European Centre for Midrange Weather Forecast Model
    EE_____________Energy and Environment (journal)
    EEP____________Eastern Equatorial Pacific
    ENSO___________El Nino Southern Oscillation
    EOF____________Empirical Orthogonal Factor
    EPA____________Environmental Protection Agency (US)
    EPAC___________Eastern Pacific
    ERBE___________Earth Radiation Balance Experiment
    FAR____________Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC)
    FOI, FOIA______Freedom Of Information Act
    FWIW___________For What Its Worth
    GCM____________General Circulation Model (sometimes said to be Global Climate Model)
    GCR____________Galactic Cosmic Ray
    GCR____________Galactic Cosmic Radiation
    GDD____________Growing Degree Day (agriculture)
    GFS____________Global Forecast System model
    GGWS, TGGWS____The Great Global Warming Swindle (TV documentary)
    GHCN___________Global Historical Climate Network
    GHG____________Green House Gases
    GISS___________Goddard Institute for Space Studies, also their temperature datase
    GISSE__________One of the GISS GCMs, which include E, F20, F23, M20, etc.
    GLRIP__________Global Lake and River Ice Phenology database
    GOM____________Gulf of Mexico
    GPCP___________Global Precipitation Climatology Project
    GPP____________Global Primary Production, total uptake of carbon by plant leaves
    GPS____________Global Positioning System
    GRL____________Geophysical Research Letters (journal)
    Gt_____________Giga-tonne, 10^9 tonnes
    GW_____________Global Warming
    Gw_____________Giga-watt (10^9 watts)
    GWD____________Gravity Wave Drag
    HadCRUT________Combined land sea temperature database from the CRU
    HadISST________Ice coverage and SST database from CRU
    HadSST_________Sea temperature database from the CRU
    HALOE__________Halogen Occultation Experiment
    HCFC___________Hydrochlorofluorocarbon, E.G., Hcclf2
    Hockey Team____Mann, Bradley, Hughes, Esper, Briffa, Schmidt, Thompson, those who support the Hockeystick
    hPa____________hecto Pascals (pressure measurement)
    HS_____________Hockeystick, see MBH98
    HTM____________Holocene Thermal Maximum
    IANAL__________I am not a lawyer …
    IANAS__________I am not a statistician …
    IB_____________Inverted Barometer (sea level)
    ICOADS_________International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set
    IIRC___________If I recall correctly …
    IMF____________Interplanetary Magnetic Field
    IMHO___________In my humble opinion …
    INVR___________Inverse Regression (reconstruction method)
    IO_____________Indian Ocean
    IPCC___________Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    IR_____________Infra-red (radiation)
    ISCCP__________International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
    ITCZ___________Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone
    ITRDB__________International Tree Ring Databank
    J Clim_________Journal of Climate (journal)
    Jason__________Radar sea level measuring satellite
    JJA____________June, July, August (summer)
    Jones__________Phil Jones of CRU
    JPL____________Jet Propulsion Laboratory (US)
    K/T____________Kiehl/Trenberth global energy balance model
    Ka_____________Kilo annum (1,000 years)
    LIA____________Little Ice Age (Maunder Minimum)
    Lowess, loess__Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (mathematics)
    LW_____________Longwave (infrared) "greenhouse" radiation
    M&M____________Steve McIntyre and Ross McKitrick
    MAM____________March, April, May (spring)
    Mannomatic_____Michael Mann's mathematical method used in MBH98
    mb_____________millibar
    MBH98__________The Mann/Bradley/Hughes 1998 Hockeystick study
    MCSST__________Multi-Channel Sea Surface Temperature
    MEI____________Multivariate ENSO Index
    MEM____________Maximum Entropy Spectral Method (mathematics)
    Mg/Ca__________Magnesium/Calcium seashell proxy record
    MJO____________Madden-Julian Oscillation
    MLO____________Mauna Loa, CO2 measuring station
    MM_____________Maunder Minimum
    MODIS__________Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (satellite instrument)
    MOHSST6________Met Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature (UK)
    MSL____________Mean Sea Level
    MSU____________Microwave Sounding Unit (satellite instrument for temperature measurement)
    MWP____________Medieval Warming Period
    MXD____________Maximum Latewood Density (tree rings)
    N2O____________Nitrous Oxide
    NAO____________North Atlantic Oscillation
    NAS____________National Academy of Science (US)
    NASA___________National Aeronautic and Space Agency
    NATL___________North Atlantic
    NCDC___________National Climate Data Center
    NCEP___________National Centers for Environmental Prediction (US)
    NGO____________Non-Governmental Organization
    NH_____________Northern Hemisphere
    NIO____________North Indian Ocean
    NIR____________Near Infra-red (radiation)
    NLSST__________Non-Linear SST
    NMAT___________Nighttime Marine Air Temperature
    NOAA___________National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    NOAMER_________North America
    NOI____________Northern Oscillation Index
    NOx____________Nitric Oxide ('X' means the number of oxygens varies: 1,2,2.5)
    NP_____________North Pacific Pattern Index
    NSF____________National Science Foundation (US)
    NSIDC__________National Snow and Ice Data Center
    NTA____________North Tropical Atlantic Index
    NVAP___________NASA Water Vapor Project
    O2_____________Oxygen Gas
    O3_____________Ozone
    OC_____________Organic Carbon
    OM_____________Organic Matter (diesel pollution component)
    ONI____________Oceanic Nino Index
    PBL____________Planetary Boundary Layer
    PCA____________Principle Component Analysis, used by Mann to create the Hockeystick
    PCR____________Pacific Cyclogenesis Region (cyclones)
    PCs____________Principle Components
    PDI____________Power Dissipation Index (cyclones)
    PDO____________Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    Pg_____________Peta-gram, 10^15 grams, 1 Pg = 1 Gt
    PGR____________Post Glacial Rebound of continents previously covered by ice (sea level)
    PNAS___________Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (journal)
    PPT____________Powerpoint Presentation
    PSMSL__________Permanent Service for the Mean Sea Level
    QBO____________Quasi-Biennial Oscillation
    R______________"R" computer language
    r.m.s._________Root-Mean-Squared (Sqrt[Sum-Of-N (Errors^2))/N])
    R^2, r squared_Predictive power of a model, varies between zero and one
    RC_____________RealClimate website
    RCS____________Regional Curve Standardisation tree ring standardisation method
    RLR____________Revised Local Reference (sea level)
    RSS____________Remote Sensing Systems, Inc.
    RW_____________Ring Width (tree rings)
    SAR____________Second Assessment Report (IPCC)
    SAT____________Surface Air Temperature
    SD_____________Standard Deviation
    SEM____________Standard Error of the Mean
    SF6____________Sulfur Hexafluoride (a very inert dense gas)
    SH_____________Southern Hemisphere
    SI_____________Supplemental Information
    sigma, σ_______Standard Error
    SIO____________Southern Indian Ocean
    SLP____________Sea Level Pressure
    SO2____________Sulfur Dioxide (becomes SO3 in air)
    SO3____________Sulfur Trioxide (becomes Sulfuric Acid in humid air)
    SOI____________Southern Oscillation Index
    SOI____________Supplemental Online Information
    SON____________September, October, November (Autumn)
    SPAC___________South Pacific
    SPM____________Summary for Policymakers (IPCC)
    SQA____________Software Quality Assurance
    SS_____________Sea Salt (climate forcing)
    SSA____________Singular Spectrum Analysis (mathematics)
    SST____________Sea Surface Temperature
    Sv_____________Sverdrup (flow rate = 1 million cubic meters per second)
    SW_____________Shortwave (solar) radiation
    TAR____________Third Assessment Report (IPCC)
    Tg_____________Tera-gram, 10^12 grams
    TGGWS, GGWS____The Great Global Warming Swindle (TV4 (UK) documentary)
    THC____________Thermohaline Circulation
    TIROS__________Television Infrared Observation Satellite
    TLT____________Temperature Lower Troposphere
    TMT____________Temperature Middle Troposphere
    TNA____________Tropical North Atlantic Index
    TNI____________Trans-Nino Index
    TOA____________Top Of Atmosphere
    TOMS___________Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (satellite instrument)
    TOPEX__________Radar sea level measuring satellite
    TOVS___________Operational Vertical Sounder (satellite instrument)
    TRW____________Tree Ring Width
    TSA____________Tropical South Atlantic Index
    TSI____________Total Solar Irradiance
    Tsurf__________Surface Temperature
    Tw_____________Tera-watt (10^12 watts)
    TWTW___________The Week That Was, Dr. Fred Singer's newsletter
    UAH____________University of Alabama Huntsville
    UCAR___________University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
    UHI____________Urban Heat Island
    USHCN__________United States Historical Climate Network
    UTH____________Upper Tropospheric Humidity
    UV_____________Ultra-violet (radiation)
    V&V____________Verification and Validation (for computer code)
    W______________watt
    W/m2, W m-2____Watts/meter squared, a measure of radiation
    WDCG___________World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases
    WDCP___________World Data Center for Paleoclimatology
    WEP____________Western Equatorial Pacific
    WG1____________Working Group 1 (IPCC)
    WHWP___________Western Hemisphere Warm Pool
    WMO____________World Meteorological Organization
    WP_____________Warm Pool
    WPAC___________Western Pacific

  29. Peter Pollock
    Posted Mar 22, 2007 at 11:19 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Re #4:

    Here’s a comparison (annual anomaly) of raw and adjusted GHCN v2 for Tarko-Sale. Why does the adjustment lower values in the 1930s and early 40s – I thought that this was supposed to be adjusting for urban heat islands and such, but this adjustment is doing the opposite. This is getting very tiresome.

    Steve,

    Does GHCN get much of its data from CRU? Take a look at the corrections for the CRUTEM3 dataset: “The most common reason for a station needing adjustment is a site move in the 1940-60 period. The earlier site tends to have been warmer than the later one ‘€” as the move is often to an out of town airport. So the adjustments are mainly negative, because the earlier record (in the town/city) needs to be reduced [Jones et al., 1985, Jones et al., 1986].” (page 6)

    Regarding the UHI adjustment: “a 1σ value of 0.0055C/decade, starting in 1900. Recent research suggests that this value is reasonable, or possibly a little conservative [Parker, 2004, Peterson, 2004, Peterson & Owen, 2005]. The same value is used over the whole land surface, and it is one-sided: recent temperatures may be too high due to urbanisation, but they will not be too low.” (page 11)

    And of overall interest: “For some stations both the adjusted and unadjusted time-series are archived at CRU and so the adjustments that have been made are known [Jones et al., 1985, Jones et al., 1986, Vincent & Gullet, 1999], but for most stations only a single series is archived, so any adjustments that might have been made (e.g. by National Met. services or individual scientists) are unknown.” (page 6)
    http://hadobs.metoffice.com/crutem3/HadCRUT3_accepted.pdf

    Peter

    (Howdy dedmod.)

  30. Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 1:44 PM | Permalink | Reply

    I have been away but am now returned to find my modest suggestion more than adequately fulfilled. Thanks everyone, especially Willis who should now consider himself covered in kisses! If that is likely to cause some discomfort, then lay back and think of England (or America, or where-ever), but anyway, accept my very grateful thanks.

  31. John A
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 2:10 PM | Permalink | Reply

    I’ve copied the acronyms provided by Willis to a new page, so we don’t lose track of them. It’s listed in the Pages box on the left hand column of this blog as “Common Acronyms used on this blog”

  32. Gerald Browning
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 2:58 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Willis,

    An unbelievable effort! And thanks to John A for posting the list
    on the sidebar!

    Jerry

  33. JerryB
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 3:23 PM | Permalink | Reply

    I suspect the new page title would catch eyes more readily
    if the first word was abbreviations, or abbreviations/acronyms,
    rather than the word commonly.

    Such as:

    Abbreviations/acronyms commonly used on this blog

    YMMV

  34. Rod
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 4:10 PM | Permalink | Reply

    CRU____________Climate Research Unit of the Hadley Centre

    I think this one needs correcting. CRU and Hadley Centre are two different entities. The CRU is the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia – which is just on the outskirts of Norwich, Norfolk. The Hadley Centre is the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research and is part of the Met Office and is based in Exeter, Devon.

  35. Hans Erren
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 6:08 PM | Permalink | Reply

    re 33:

    FUA Frequenly Used Acronyms

  36. Peter D. Tillman
    Posted Mar 23, 2007 at 6:22 PM | Permalink | Reply

    Re: New acronym list

    Thanks very much, guys. Very helpful.

    Cheers — Pete Tillman

  37. Posted Mar 25, 2007 at 11:34 AM | Permalink | Reply

    Re 29 Peter, the short answer to your question, “Does GHCN get much of its data from CRU?”, is no.
    From its inception in the early 1990’s GHCN sourced their data from National Met. orgs or collections by various researchers. Surely the whole point of GHCN was for NOAA to do an alternative to Jones et al 1986 with their own methodology. All that said, I assume that if NOAA had asked CRU for anything, it would have been given, such as this 19C ex Russian Imperial data from Sitka AK ref to in a later thread.

    Re 34, I agree Rod.

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