Here is a discussion of two of Bradley’s answers to questions from the House Committee letter pertaining to federal grants and archiving. Questions and Answers 2. List all financial support you have received related to your research, including, but not limited to, all private, state, and federal assistance, grants, contracts (including subgrants or subcontracts), or other financial awards or honoraria….
A list of grants received for my research can be found in my curriculum vitae [which was attached as part of question 1, but which, to my knowledge, is not publicly available]
4. Provide the location of all data archives relating to each published study for which you were an author or co-author and indicate: (a) whether this information contains all the specific data you used and calculations your performed, including such supporting documentation as computer source code, validation information, and other ancillary information, necessary for full evaluation and application of the data, particularly for another party to replicate your research results; (b) when this information was available to researchers; (c) where and when you first identified the location of this information; (d) what modifications, if any, you have made to this information since publication of the respective study; and (e) if necessary information is not fully available, provide a detailed narrative description of the steps somebody must take to acquire the necessary information to replicate your study results or assess the quality of the proxy data you used.
Some of the data used in my research is archived at the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology (WDC-A), Boulder, Colorado. Other data are also available to the general public at NOAA or in other national data depositories around the world. When I or my students have generated data sets they are generally sent to the WDC-A once the results have been published. This is the normal procedure followed in my field. If someone is interested in specific data or procedures usd, they generally write to me requesting that information. Data related to the Mann et al. (1998) paper are available at ftp://holocene.evsc.virginia.edu/pub/MBH98.
As a quick aside, I sent Bradley an inquiry about methods here without receiving a response. NSF Awards to Bradley NSF is only one potential paleoclimate source, but it is the most important. NSF has has a convenient function for extracting award information for each Principal Investigator (PI). So it’s hardly an onerous job to collate this information. Here’s a collation that took me about 5 minutes to prepare (but this is not a substitute for Bradley’s own collation.) Awards from NSF in which Bradley was PI total over $3.5 million, so it’s not a small amount. Over $1.1 million has been awarded with David Verardo as the responsible NSF officer. MBH98-MBH99 were funded in part by award ATM-9626833 amounting to $137,164. This study did not involve any primary data collection, but was limited to processing of other people’s data. MBH98 was published in March 1998 and, according to the information below, the award expired on June 30, 1999. If we consider archiving policy of the Earth System History program in effect as of 1995, then the data should have been archived at the time of publication or within 3 years of collection. Archiving of data in July 2004 as part of a Nature Corrigendum, after prior refusal to provide the data, hardly counts as complicance. Most of Bradley’s awards shown below (including 2 active awards) pertain to the study of sediments in Arctic lakes: including the large expired awards 9819362, 9707081, 9322769 and 8922082. I’ll spot check the archiving on a couple of them below. ‘
|Insti- tution||Program||Award Number||Title||Expiration Date||
‘ Awarded to Date
|NSF||ARC||454959||Collaborative research: a synthesis of the last 2000 years of climatic variability from Arctic lakes||28-Feb-09||89,380|
|NSF||ATM||402421||High-Resolution Studies of High Arctic Paleoclimate from Varved Lake Sediments||31-May-07||425,147|
|NSF||BCS||221376||Doctoral Dissertation Research: Varves and Varve-Forming Processes in a High Arctic Lake||29-Feb-04||12,000|
|NSF||ATM||214394||Conference:‘ The Hadley Circulation: Present, Past and Future; Honolulu, Hawaii; November 11-14, 2002||30-Jun-03||20,000|
|NSF||BCS||101035||Doctoral Dissertation Research: A 1,200-Year, High-Resolution Record of Hurricane Activity for Southern New England||31-Aug-02||10,000|
|NSF||OISE||4425||US-Israel Dissertation Enhancement:‘ Holocene Paleoclimate Investigations in the Venezuelan Andes Using‘ Oxygen Isotopes in Diatom Opal||31-Jul-02||7,800|
|NSF||ATM||9911764||SGER:‘ Lake Sediment Paleoclimate Research in the Lofoten Islands, Arctic Norway||30-Apr-03||60,019|
|NSF||ATM||9909201||Collaborative Research:‘ Stable Isotope Variability in Precipitation at Low Latitude Sites:‘ An Observational and Modeling Study||31-Jan-03||254,653|
|NSF||ATM||9905399||Solar Influences on Cloud Formation and Global Temperature:‘ An Assessment of the Danish Hypothesis||30-Sep-00||55,335|
|NSF||ARC||9819362||Land-Atmosphere-Ice and Snow Interactions in the High Arctic: the Hazen Plateau, Ellesmore Island||31-Jan-04||538,727|
|NSF||ATM||9708071||High Resolution Lake Sediment Studies for Paleoclimatic Reconstruction in the Canadian High Arctic||31-Dec-03||637,096|
|NSF||ATM||9707698||Precipitation Variability in the Inter-tropical Andes –‘ Climatological Studies for Paleoclimatic Reconstruction||31-Jul-00||142,848|
|NSF||ATM||9626833||Patterns of Organized Climatic Variability||30-Jun-99||137,164|
|NSF||ATM||9530179||IAI Workshop: Climate Variability in the Americas‘ from High Elevation Ice Cores||30-Jun-97||49,937|
|NSF||ATM||9322769||Collaborative Research:‘ Laminated Lake Sediments from‘ the Canadian High Arctic:‘ Understanding the Climatic‘ Signal for Paleoclimatic Reconstruction||30-Nov-97||330,000|
|NSF||ATM||9008070||Project ARRCC: Analysis of Recent and Rapid Climatic Change||31-Aug-96||260,668|
|NSF||OPP||8922082||Paleoclimatic Significance of Laminated Lake Sediments‘ From the Canadian High Arctic||30-Nov-93||322,976|
|NSF||EAR||8400049||Acquisition of Field and Laboratory Equipment for Lake‘ Sediment Analysis||30-Sep-85||50,000|
|NSF||ATM||8017745||Climatic Fluctuations of Northernmost North America||30-Jun-84||128,300|
|NSF||ATM||7715189||The Secular Climatic History of the Arid and Semi-Arid‘ Western United States||31-Mar-81||65,000|
|NSF||ATM||7500975||Past Glacial Activity in the High Arctic||30-Apr-77||41,800|
Archiving Award 9708071, expired December 2003, is entitled "High Resolution Lake Sediment Studies for Paleoclimatic Reconstruction in the Canadian High Arctic". Its abstract mentioned the potential of this dataset to provide information on the so-called Medieval Warm Period (adding to the interest in acquiring the dataset):
This award will support a project designed to extend the record of summer temperature derived from varved sediments in the Canadian High Arctic to cover the last 2-3000 years. This will place the dramatic changes observed over the few centuries into a longer term perspective. In particular, conditions around 1,000 years ago, during the so-called Medieval Warm Period, will be examined for its the global significance. Multiple dating approaches will be used to provide confidence in the chronology and to establish a secular paleomagnetic record for the region. This can then be used as a chronological template to help in dating other sedimentary records which are low in organic carbon. Hydrological studies in selected basins will clarify the climatic controls on sediment flux to these lakes and improve paleoclimatic interpretations of the varved sediment records recovered. By combining these observations with earlier work, a comprehensive conceptual model of the climatic controls on sediment flux to arctic lakes will be developed.
ATM-9322769 is entitled: "Laminated Lake Sediments from the Canadian High Arctic: Understanding the Climatic Signal for Paleoclimatic Reconstruction Synopsis." Its abstract states:
Ice core and other paleoclimatic records from the High Arctic suggest that summer temperatures reached minimum levels for the entire Holocene during the last 500 years, but underwent a dramatic reversal in the last 100 years. This award, under the Paleoclimate from Arctic Lakes and Estuaries (PALE) program is designed to study lake sediments from a number of sites to determine if this hypothesis is supported by the sedimentary record. To better understand the paleoclimatic signal in the sediments, a three year process-based study is planned to determine the primary controls on sediments flux and varved sediment formation in Sophia Lake, a High Arctic hypersaline, meromictic lake. Sophia Lake provides a simple topographic environment, which will facilitate efforts to isolate the primary climatic forcing. Sediments from lakes on the margin of Agassiz Ice Cap will also be recovered in order to link the paleoclimatic record of ice cores from the ice cap to sedimentary records from the glacier margin,
Both projects are long finished and have had ample time to be archived. Archiving would have been required long ago under the archiving policies of either PARCS or the Earth System History program (as discussed here.)
ESH data should be submitted to the World Data Center-A (WDC-A) for Paleoclimatology (Boulder, CO) within three years of generation or at the time of publication, whichever comes first.
WDCP has a function enabling one to search by contributor. If one does a search on Bradley, one cannot locate any archiving of Arctic lake sediments. PA
RCS has a slightly different database. The only information archived by Bradley or his students at PARCS seems to be some 1990-1992 streamflow measurements from Taconite Inlet here , which is mirrored at the UMass project website , where additionally weather station readings for 1991-1992 seasons are also shown. (This information was webbed up in 1997 and I was unable to locate more recent archiving). I sought confirmation from WDCP whether Arctic lake sediment data had been archived by Ray Bradley or his students (Braun, Retelle, probably others), noting that Sophia Lake, Lake Tuborg, Sawtooth Lake and Taconite Inlet lakes were possible sites. I was advised by WDCP that none of this data had been archived with them. They were only aware of the old Taconite Inlet information from 1991-1992 noted above. It is very difficult to find evidence from Arctic lake sediments supporting Bradley’s statement to the House Committee that:
When I or my students have generated data sets they are generally sent to the WDC-A once the results have been published. This is the normal procedure followed in my field.
Why then has Bradley not archived data on lake sediments from these older studies?