Rahmstorf et al 2015 Figure 5 shows a coral d15N series from offshore Nova Scotia (see left panel below). The corresponding plot from the source is shown on the right. Original captions for both follow. There’s enough information in the figures and captions to figure out Rahmstorf’s next trick. See if you can figure it out before looking at my explanation below the fold.
Figure 1. Left – Rahmstorf et al Figure 5. Original caption: Figure 5 A compilation of different indicators for Atlantic ocean circulation. The blue curve shows our temperature-based AMOC index also shown in Fig. 3b. The dark red curve shows the same index based on NASA GISS temperature data-48 (scale on left). The green curve with uncertainty range shows coral proxy data – 25 (scale on right). The data are decadally smoothed. Orange dots show the analyses of data from hydrographic sections across the Atlantic at 25 N, where a 1 K change in the AMOC index corresponds to a 2.3 Sv change in AMOC transport, as in Fig. 2 based on the model simulation. Other estimates from oceanographic data similarly suggest relatively strong AMOC in the 1950s and 1960s, weak AMOC in the 1970s and 1980s and stronger again in the 1990s (refs 41,51). Right – Sherwood et al 2011 Figure 3 excerpt. Original caption: time series … annual mean bulk d15N from six colonies of the deep-sea gorgonian P. resedaeformis. Shaded areas represent 95% confidence intervals around annual means. Dashed lines indicate long-term trends, where significant. Note the cold periods (blue bars) of the 1930s/1940s and 1960s and sustained warm period (red bar) since 1970. Bulk d15N is most strongly correlated with NAO at a lag of 4 years (r= -0.19) and with temperature at a lag of 3 years (r=-0.27, p<0.05). … Squares in bulk d15N plot show values of the eight individual samples used for d15N-AA analysis. Continue reading